Teacher education is a vital component of every educational system, and as such, it serves a crucial and basic function in enhancing the educational system and improving its quality. The purpose of the study was to provide an overview of teacher education in Pakistan in the context of education policies, quantitative expansion, the provision of education for pre-and in-service teachers, particularly by the public sector, and initiatives undertaken by the public sector to improve the quality of teacher education, as well as to highlight the issues and problems associated with teacher training. The number of teacher-training institutions in Pakistan has exploded since 1947. Teacher education is an essential aspect of the Pakistani educational system. Hence every educational policy document has addressed teacher education and offered various improvements.

Nevertheless, these steps were applied piecemeal. Thus they were unable to provide the expected results. Over a certain length of time, the quality of public-sector education dropped, allowing the private sector to emerge as a formidable rival in the education sector by enrolling one-third of students at all educational levels.

Pakistan faces numerous obstacles, and education is no exception. Despite the efforts of the government and private organizations, the education system in Pakistan still confronts numerous issues, with the quality of classroom instruction being one of the most crucial. The cornerstone for building a professional and knowledgeable workforce, which is vital for any nation’s economic and social development, is the quality of education in schools. Thus, it is necessary to solve the teaching difficulty in Pakistani schools.

  • Enhance the Recruiting Methodology: 

Recruiting teachers is one of the Pakistani educational system’s most critical difficulties. The current recruitment procedure needs more transparency, resulting in the appointment of numerous unqualified individuals as instructors. Thus, it is vital to strengthen and increase the clarity of the recruitment process. To ensure that only qualified applicants are hired as instructors, the recruiting process should include thorough screening and testing of candidates.

  • Give Sufficient Training:

The education system in Pakistan needs to offer instructors with proper training, which is another important obstacle. Instructors should obtain regular training to enhance their teaching abilities and stay abreast of the most recent teaching strategies. Training should emphasize classroom management, subject understanding, and technological integration. These programs should include lesson planning, classroom management, and technology integration. The government can also offer teachers financial incentives to encourage participation in these training programs. The government should also encourage teachers to engage in skill-enhancing workshops and seminars.

  • Promote the Use of Technology:

Technology has revolutionized the learning process and has become an indispensable tool for educators. Technology in the classroom may make learning more interactive, engaging, and enjoyable. Thus, it is essential to promote the use of technology in Pakistani schools. The government should give schools the infrastructure and resources necessary to incorporate technology into instruction. Also, teachers should receive training on how to use technology in the classroom. The government should invest in providing schools with the technological infrastructure they require, including computers, projectors, and interactive whiteboards. In order to enhance the learning experience, teachers should also receive training on how to utilize technology in the classroom.

  • Enhance the Quality of Educational Materials:

The quality of learning materials is an additional key concern for the Pakistani education system. Several schools in Pakistan still employ out-of-date textbooks whose material is frequently irrelevant to students’ needs. Thus, it is vital to enhance the quality of educational resources. The government should invest in the creation of new and updated textbooks that meet the demands of students. Also, teachers should be encouraged to create their individualized instructional resources.


Pakistan’s education system can be improved by ensuring qualified teachers’ availability and enhancing instruction quality. Pakistan has made significant progress toward its aim of universal primary education. However, there are still stark gaps in learning levels between public and private schools, as well as between rural and urban areas. The varying quality of instruction among educational institutions is one of the primary causes of these disparities. Inadequate numbers of qualified teachers, particularly subject specialists, uneven distribution of teachers across schools, teacher absenteeism, low teacher accountability, and insufficient training opportunities and incentive systems are just some of the multiple challenges faced by the education system. To increase the fairness and openness of the teacher deployment and transfer procedure, the teacher rationalization policy proposed in Punjab and Sindh must be prioritized and fully implemented. By avoiding political involvement in teacher transfers, we can distribute teachers based on need and improve teacher retention in remote rural locations.

The practice of promoting high-performing teachers to administrative or managerial jobs must end, and attractive progression options must be developed for teachers inside the teaching profession. Teachers are a key part of every educational system, and their efficacy is crucial for determining student learning outcomes and lowering dropout rates. Pakistan’s education system can be improved by ensuring qualified teachers’ availability and enhancing instruction quality.


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